Types of Radioactive Waste
Different types of waste are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities - from normal municipal waste to very low level, low level, intermediate level and high level radioactive waste (RAW) in solid, liquid and gaseous form.
Very low level and low level liquid and solid radioactive waste is treated by appropriate technologies to a form which meets the requirements for final disposal. Gaseous waste is cleaned on special filters and after some time it is released in the form of gaseous discharges. Intermediate level and high level waste is stored for a long time until its final disposal in the deep geological repository.
Institutional radioactive waste (IRAW) is generated in hospitals, research institutes, laboratories, engineering industry, construction industry, food processing industry and in other sectors. It is for example emitters used at cancer treatment, residuals of radioactive medicaments, discarded fire alarms and others. Captured radioactive materials (CRAM) are the materials of unknown origin that are identified and captured particularly at border crossing, in ironworks, in waste disposal services, or directly in the field. This specific waste can be processed and treated for final disposal by various technologies.
The company JAVYS, a. s., provides activities of radioactive waste management. During the radioactive waste processing the company observes three main principles: to reduce its original amount by volume reduction, to create safe and stable form suitable for final disposal by its fixation and to provide sufficient barriers against the release of radioactivity into the environment during the whole period of disposal. All radioactive waste is carefully collected, recorded, checked and it is monitored and checked during the whole period of its treatment.
The Slovak Republic has implemented the concept of low level radioactive waste disposal, fixed in cement or bitumen, stored in fibre-concrete containers with long-term integrity at the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce.