The V1 Nuclear Power Plant Bohunice (V1 NPP, also referred to as Bohunice V1), located in Jaslovské Bohunice, consists of two nuclear reactors (Units 1 and 2) commissioned in 1978 and 1980 respectively. In spite of a successful refurbishment, both units were shut down in 2006 (Unit 1) and 2008 (Unit 2) before reaching the planned operation period (30 years). On the basis of the Resolution No. 801/99 of the Slovak Government of 14th September 1999, V1 NPP is currently in the process of decommissioning, hence meeting a condition of the Accession Treaty of Slovak Republic to the European Union.
The V1 NPP is located in the Bohunice nuclear energy complex, a common site that comprises the nuclear power plant A1 in process of decommissioning and operative nuclear facilities such as Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre (RWTC) and Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS). Apart from nuclear facilities operated by JAVYS a.s., the complex includes the nuclear power plant V2 which is operated by Slovenské elektrárne a.s. - Enel.
V1 NPP Decommissioning is a project led by Jadrová a vyraďovacia spoločnosť a.s. a.s., JAVYS, financed mainly by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF) and the National Nuclear Fund of SR. BIDSF was established by the European Commission, while the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) was designated to administrate the Fund.
The purpose of the planned V1 NPP decommissioning is to achieve a status that fulfils the criteria (in accordance with applicable legal provisions) for site release for further use. Accordingly, decommissioning of V1 NPP will be completed by removal of all unnecessary and unusable buildings and equipment and release of the site for further use.
In line with the approved Strategy of Bohunice V1 NPP Decommissioning , the process is organized in two subsequent stages:
1st Stage (July 2011 - 31st December 2014)
In 2006 - 2007 prior to the approval of V1 NPP decommissioning, Environmental Impact Assessment according to at that time effective Act No. 127/1994 Coll. on Environmental Impact Assessment, as amended (EIA Act) was carried out. This process covered also the environmental assessment of three alternatives of decommissioning (IDO - Immediate decommissioning alternative; SES - Deferred decommissioning alternative with safe enclosure under surveillance for 30 years; and RSE - Deferred decommissioning alternative with reactor safe enclosure for 30 years). These alternatives were compared with so called zero alternative, which refers to the situation and consequences that would occur should the proposed activity (V1 NPP decommissioning) did not take place. The Environmental Impact Assessment Report on V1 NPP Decommissioning was developed and submitted to the responsible authority (Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic) in 2006. The Final Statement issued by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic on 7th March 2007 recommended Immediate Decommissioning of V1 NPP (IDO) as the preferred option. This option represents immediate and continuous dismantling of equipment, demolition of buildings and preparation of the site for future use. The Final Statement served as basis for the decision of UJD SR (Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic) No. 400/2011 (issued in July 2011) by which the 1st stage of V1 NPP decommissioning was authorised. The 1st stage, which shall last until 31th December 2014, will comprise removal of inactive components and demolition of structures that will not be needed for future decommissioning activities (mainly demolition of cooling towers and dismantling of turbine hall equipment).
2nd Stage (1st January 2015 - 31st December 2027)
The 2nd stage of V1 NPP decommissioning shall focus in particular on the removal of radioactive components and demolition of all remaining structures. If necessary, activities exceeding the first stage shall be carried out. For a more detailed impact assessment of all planned activities on the environment a new Environmental Impact Assessment according to the Act No. 24/2006 Coll., as amended will take place. Considering the already performed process of Environmental Impact Assessment of "V1 NPP decommissioning" activities (based on the V1 NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan of 2006 - 2007, by which the IDO alternative was selected), the 2nd stage shall not comprise a selection of a decommissioning alternative, but focus on the description and assessment of the technological processes in respect to the individual activities planned for the 2nd stage of V1 NPP decommissioning. The company in charge of elaboration of documents according to the mentioned legal act, that is the Preliminary Environmental Study and the EIA Report, which will comprise description of activities and assessment of their impacts on the environment, and of the support of JAVYS a.s. during the whole EIA process is the Spanish consultant and engineering company Inypsa Informes y Proyectos S.A.